I was forwarded some links to articles on tracking. After weeding the broken and irrelevant ones out this is the set that's left. My plan is to start keeping references here as time goes by to interesting pieces. I'm particularly looking for research articles. Feel free to add links I should add in the comments.
Tracking Research and Arguments For:
- https://edex.s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/publication/pdfs/Loveless%20Final%20Copy_8.pdf Detailed discussion of the history and major research. "Serious charges have been made about tracking and ability grouping, especially tracking. Several states and districts have pushed schools to abolish tracking, and a storm of controversy has ensued. In recent years, tracking and ability grouping have come under increased fire for (1) being inefficient, that is, for not promoting academic achievement, and for (2) being inequitable, i.e., for condemning low group and low track students, and especially poor students and students of color, to impoverished educational settings. These charges are mostly unsubstantiated by research. The evidence does not support the charge that tracking is inherently harmful, and there is no clear evidence that abandoning tracking for heterogeneously grouped classes would provide a better education for any student. This being said, tracking's ardent defenders cannot call on a wealth of research to support their position either. The evidence does not support the claim that tracking benefits most students or that heterogeneous grouping depresses achievement. High achieving students are the exception. For them, tracked classes with an accelerated or enriched curriculum are superior to heterogeneously grouped classes."
- http://www.ascd.org/ASCD/pdf/journals/ed_lead/el_199103_allan.pdf A discussion of several meta studies showing tracking is effective and not harmful.
- The elephant in the classroom: http://www.davidsongifted.org/db/Articles_id_10236.aspx This says ability grouping is good for bright kids, especially minority kids, no harm to low achieving kids
- All Together Now? http://educationnext.org/all-together-now/ Alternative Uses of Ability Grouping in Secondary Schools: Can We Bring High-Quality Instruction to Low-Ability Classes: Journal of Education Vol 102 No1 (Nov. 1993) pp 1-22. Stable URL:http://jstor.org/stable/1085693
- Differentiation Does In Fact Work: http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2015/01/28/differentiation-does-in-fact-work.html?qs=differentiation+doesn%27t+work
- http://www.nber.org/papers/w18848 A rigorous primary study that concluded that ability tracking was good for both high and low ability students in the Dallas schools.
- Delisle, James R, Differentiation is a Joke Terrible title but interesting opinion piece.
- Education Week, Setting the Record Straight on Ability Grouping By Paula Olszewski-Kubiliushttp://mobile.edweek.org/c.jsp?rssid=25919691&item=http%3a%2f%2fapi.edweek.org%2fv1%2ftm%2f%3fuuid%3d1A7DF4D0-C175-11E2-8893-03A9B3743667&cid=25919701 (Behind registration / paywall)
- New York Times piece on the achievement gap shifting and becoming more about SES than race. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/23/business/economy/education-gap-between-rich-and-poor-is-growing-wider.html?_r=0
- http://educationnext.org/tracking-improve-learning/ A large scale study done in Kenya involving 10000 students.
- http://www.hoover.org/sites/default/files/uploads/documents/0817928723_85.pdf The anti-tracking movement has suddenly become anti-ability grouping, resulting in serious side-effects for gifted students who currently are being served effectively in ability-grouped programs that consistently meet their needs. Closer scrutiny of the research frequently cited reveals commonly held misinterpretations and misconceptions. Six commonly held myths are examined and discussed in relationship to educators’ efforts to provide the best instructional programs for all students, including those whose abilities place them at the upper end of the spectrum.
- http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.3102/0034654316675417?utm_source=SAGE_social&hootPostID=7081f197bba00cc23a727dbd65fac50b& Two second-order meta-analyses synthesized approximately 100 years of research on the effects of ability grouping and acceleration on K–12 students’ academic achievement. Outcomes of 13 ability grouping meta-analyses showed that students benefited from within-class grouping (0.19 ≤ g ≤ 0.30), cross-grade subject grouping (g = 0.26), and special grouping for the gifted (g = 0.37), but did not benefit from between-class grouping (0.04 ≤ g ≤0.06); the effects did not vary for high-, medium-, and low-ability students. Three acceleration meta-analyses showed that accelerated students significantly outperformed their nonaccelerated same-age peers (g = 0.70) but did not differ significantly from nonaccelerated older peers (g = 0.09). Three other meta-analyses that aggregated outcomes across specific forms of acceleration found that acceleration appeared to have a positive, moderate, and statistically significant impact on students’ academic achievement (g = 0.42).
- https://research.hks.harvard.edu/publications/getFile.aspx?Id=1238 Short and long term affect of a completely objective (standardized score based) math placement leading to 8th grade algebra. The results were promising as far as demographics but not in terms of outcomes. Most of the marginal students did not perform well in their middle school and high school classes and there was substantial leakiness in the math pipeline.
TODO: add Kulik study.
Tracking Research and Arguments Against:
- Detracking for Excellence and Equity, "Our studies (Burris et al., 2006; Burris et al., 2007) as well as the studies of others (Mosteller, Light, & Sachs, 1996; Slavin, 1990) have found that the achievement of highly talented students either is not affected or actually increases when detracking occurs. The key factor, of course, is ensuring that the curriculum remains challenging" (Burris & Garrity, 2008) TODO: need to find online. https://mmsdamps.files.wordpress.com/2008/07/accelerating-mathematics-achievement-using-heterogeneous-grouping.pdf (Accelerating Mathmatics Achievement using Heterogeneous groups is probably the first reference)
- https://edexcellence.net/articles/what-works-in-gifted-education-documenting-the-effects-of-an-integrated "Five gifted education and curriculum researchers assess the impact of differentiated English language arts units on gifted third graders .... The results showed significant increases favoring the treatment group for every cohort/year combination. And whether students were in a pull-out or self-contained gifted setting did not impact their learning." Full paper: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED535658.pdf
- TODO: add Slavin
- TODO: add Jeannie Oakes http://ted.coe.wayne.edu/drbob/Oakes.pdf (She references a bunch more studies.)
- TODO: add Hattie meta-analysis
Somewhat Relevant Tracking Articles:
- Let's go back to grouping students by ability http://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2013/03/lets-go-back-to-grouping-students-by-ability/274362/
- http://www.brookings.edu/research/reports/2013/03/18-eighth-grade-math-loveless Putting lots more kids in algebra in 8th grade is not correlated with long term student success, and there is some correlation that it creates watered down courses.
- What Do We Risk Losing By Not Challenging Gifted Kids http://ww2.kqed.org/mindshift/2014/04/25/what-do-we-risk-losing-by-not-challenging-gifted-kids/
- NY Times, Grouping Students by Ability Gains Favor in Classroom http://mobile.nytimes.com/2013/06/10/education/grouping-students-by-ability-regains-favor-with-educators.html?referer=&_r=1
Testing and Identification:
- https://faculty.education.uiowa.edu/docs/dlohman/lohmanwallace-2006-talk.pdf?sfvrsn=2. An interesting read. Lohman recommends focusing on percentiles within similar opportunity-to-learn subgroups. Note: Seattle doeson't have normed data at that level of granularity for things like CogAT because such testing is opt-in by State Law.
- https://faculty.education.uiowa.edu/docs/dlohman/practical-advice.pdf?sfvrsn=2 The suggested protocol for use of the CogAT. AL is basically using a variant of this and I believe they have consulted with the author.
- http://www.nber.org/papers/w21519 "Low income and minority students are under-represented in gifted education programs. One explanation for this pattern is that the usual process for identifying gifted students, through parent and teacher referrals, systematically misses many potentially qualified disadvantaged students. We use the experiences in a large urban school district following the introduction of a universal screening program for second grade students to study this hypothesis. With no change in the standards for gifted eligibility the screening program led to large increases in the fractions of economically disadvantaged students and minorities placed in gifted programs. Comparisons of the newly identified gifted students with those who would have been placed in the absence of screening show that blacks and Hispanics, free/reduced price lunch participants, English language learners, and girls are all systematically "under-referred" in the traditional parent/teacher referral system."
- http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-to-raise-a-genius-lessons-from-a-45-year-study-of-supersmart-children/?wt.mc=SA_Twitter-Share "With the first SMPY recruits now at the peak of their careers, what has become clear is how much the precociously gifted outweigh the rest of society in their influence. Many of the innovators who are advancing science, technology and culture are those whose unique cognitive abilities were identified and supported in their early years through enrichment programmes such as Johns Hopkins University's Center for Talented Youth—which Stanley began in the 1980s as an adjunct to SMPY. At the start, both the study and the centre were open to young adolescents who scored in the top 1% on university entrance exams.Pioneering mathematicians Terence Tao and Lenhard Ng were one-percenters, as were Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg, Google co-founder Sergey Brin and musician Stefani Germanotta (Lady Gaga), who all passed through the Hopkins "
- https://www.vox.com/the-big-idea/2017/5/18/15655638/charles-murray-race-iq-sam-harris-science-free-speech Response to Charles Murray's arguments about race and IQ. This is an important set of points to keep in mind when the argument about IQ is made that its racist/culturally biased/irrelevant as well as a hopeful survey of the field.
2013 APP (now HCC) AC recommendations for the program: https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B6oYedIeLTUKaFlQcGRwOUtpUzA